Learning Objectives: The umbilical cord can now be readily identified sonographically as early as the first trimester of pregnancy. A number of normal and pathological states can be identified which may impact further diagnosis and management. The following umbilical cord abnormalities will be discussed: single umbilical artery, persistent right umbilical vein, umbilical vein varix, nuchal cords, hypo- and hypercoiled cords and umbilical cord cysts.
Learning Objectives: 1) Assess chorionicity and amnionicity of twins. 2) Diagnose complications of twin pregnancies, including twin-twin transfusion syndrome and acardiac anomaly. 3) Understand the use of fetal measurements in multiple gestations.
Learning Objectives: 1) To recognize whether a small intrauterine fluid collection is an intradecidually implanted gestational sac, or a pseudosac associated with an ectopic pregnancy. 2) To evaluate the spectrum of B-scan findings that can occur with ectopic pregnancy. 3) To learn the benefits (and limitations) of Doppler analysis in patients with suspected ectopic pregnancy., 4) To understand the relationship of hCG and sonography not only for diagnosing ectopic pregnancy, but also for managing patients with ectopic pregnancy.